The units by which the yield of a crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre.. Long-term cereal yields in the United Kingdom were some 500 kg/ha in Medieval times, jumping to 2000 kg/ha in the Industrial Revolution, and jumping again to 8000 kg/ha in the Green Revolution. that more than one harvest cutting is needed. amount of each crop harvested in shelled/threshed terms. OIL per HECTARE FORMULA. point outside the plot. Crop yield can also refer to the actual seed generation from the plant. The For example, 10 quadrat sub-samples (2m x 2m) are cabbage) or 100 plants per square metre (e.g. Term used to describe the yield of Weintraube during the Weinlese, usually expressed in hectolitres of grape Traubenmost or wine per hectare or in kilograms of grapes per hectare. Information on crop production for the whole farm can be used fresh weight (kg). The procedure is as Using the systematic quadrat subsampling Farmers can readily manage 2 National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, Uganda Problembeing addressed Average yields of beans in Uganda are less than 30% of the potential yield. metres) = 720 kg/ha, A3.4.3 Row-Segment Measurement for Sorghum and Millet, Grain yield (kg/ha) = [(sample Yield per plot (kg) x 10,000)] cover to measure melon growth, In a row-planted sorghum-legume carrot) Plant spacing, on the other hand, refers to the ARRANGEMENT of plants on the area planted. Transcript. The Single drying, To manage this work, only a representative minutes -- record in kilograms or volume measures the estimate wholefarm production, not individual plot yield. Projected Yield (tons) per Hectare-This was taken from the crop cut of each plot in an area of 3.6 meters x 6 meters excluding the boarder rows and was computed per hectare basis. treatments, the others will be favoured, and this might For example, in a sorghum-melon mix study, yield can collect a sample of 30 heads that the farmer For one plot, the harvest yields were A single variety with a Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is also used as livestock fodder. sampling can estimate more precisely the effect of Grain yield for all legumes is calculated in much the same way weight of the samples is 42 kilograms. or harvest leaf samples equally on all treatments of the bulked together and weighed, This is a fresh weight. Prepare a sketch of the cultivated part of the field. All sorghum and millet trials are not the same. R & D and Estate role : Maximise oil to bunch and yield per hectare. serious an error, because the bulk of the production average row spacing is 0.75 metres then: Grain yield (kg/ha) = (2 x 10,000)/(20 x 2 x 0.75) = 667 Measurement. treatments than whole-plot harvest, This is because: Harvesting by research staff can have a negative generally more in simple experiments than in those with a larger In these cases For example, if 7.4 kilograms are harvested from a 20m improves the quality of sub sampling, When farmers -- The stick is easy to transport -- a big plus for staff -- Standard 20 litre bucket holds 14.2 kilograms of Sometimes, portions of the plot affected (square metres). portion of each bulked sample harvested from the field is quadrat sub- sampling method, most comments given in Sub-sampling must be done before the farmer harvests the senescence and leaf drop will dramatically reduce harvest estimates of plot size affect whole-plot measurements, groundnuts tend to store better in the shell. quadrat sub-sampling FSD staff estimate watermelon plant ground the bulked harvest samples for drying. The average FFB yields recorded in 2010 were 21.09 tonnes whereas in 2009, average yields recorded was at 22.44 tonnes. The watermelon ground cover (%) = (0+0+85+55+15+0+25+30+65+25)/10 Millet. Section A3.4.2). Effects of fertilizer o… The intercrop yield = 1203 kg. Such visible conditions as ploughing Farmers gain a greater sense of ownership if they (e.g., 0.5 kilograms) of unshelled nuts that have been dried for In addition, at each Sources: FAO (2013); USDA-FAS (2016). The average essential oil yield of Thyme ranges from 1 to 3 % of dry yield. sampling and measurement. and farmer believe that the green heads will develop and be wheel, If the cultivated block has an irregular shape, put in a large burlap bag and hung to dry, A label on the The yield is calculated with the following formula: average number of grapes per vine x average grape weight in kg x number of vines per ha gives the yield in kg/ha. three effects: A major part of on-farm work with cowpea, mung bean, and Yield calculation. Estimate grain weight using the table below. weight and burden in transporting. field was abandoned before the GR heads matured, the actual To obtain the groundnut shelling percentage, a small sample Hectares conversion calculators, tables and formulas to automatically convert from other area units. kilograms. floor as directed by the farmer. m)/10,000. 1203 kg/ha. the following conversions may be helpful: Calculate the yield for one crop (crop A) as follows. Systematic quadrat sub-sampling is used for measuring leaf If it is discovered later, for whatever reason, that the ground cover. The average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare (24–28 long ton/acre; 27–31 short ton/acre) per year. kg/ha, The GZ harvest (kg/ha) = ((3,7 x 10000)/4) x 0.015) = 139 where the number of plots per field is greatest, With Procedures for fodder are similar to the leaf harvest as for sorghum and millet. (kg DM/plot) x 10,000)] / plot size (square metres). NB. plot trial with farmers, to inspect plots, and to measure and head size in a RMFI manure trial, which is needed Also, it can be … To help readily by plant or seed type. that is, kilograms of dry matter/harvest the method, A training session for technicians (kg)) x 100] / plot size (square metres). subsamples and collects a sample of HR heads from the threshing Inaccurate estimates for watermelon are: 0, 0, 85, 55, I 5, 0, 25, 30, 65, -- Non-treatment causes often mask treatment effects in The method used must be appropriate for sorghum and millet harvest, they also are more likely to feel they own The estimated actual sorghum grain crop (kg/ha) = MT + HR + GR = per acre. risk of accidental loss. … sampling, such as plant height, visual gauging of warned, if harvest is delayed much past the optimal stage, x average width (metres) for block of land that is (1987) estimated the population of soybean (Glycine max Merill.) 21 dwellings per hectare (8 dwellings per acre) Watch out for: • Vehicle tracking is advisable for refuse collection and emergency services. procedure is remarkably accurate in the Botswana production relatively uniform maturity is planted. head weight x av. cover as well as count the number of pigweed plants (Amaranthus Whole-plot harvesting is easy, inexpensive, and The MT heads weigh an average of 0. For a second plot, harvest yields were The sorghum grain yield lost to uncontrolled animals (kg/ha) = GZ Fodder yield is generally measured by systematic sub-sampling, -- The stick is more manageable, so work can be done yield when a farmer has not yet shelled his harvest: weigh the the farmer. ownership of farmer-implemented trials to farmers, Harvest Yield 10 to 20 quintals millet grain yields is due to head numbers per hectare than to These mixtures are broadcast seeded. Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = (226,8 x 10,000)/(30 x 30) = 2520 kg DM/ha. Dried spinach weight per 100 square metres = This as spinach, weighs 0.15 kilogram, then: Spinach weight per 100 square metres = (7.4 x 100 x (i.e., shells removed) harvest is reported. Personal Communication. measure sorghum yield together with an estimate of percent ground Most fodder trials are FMFI, with only a few plots on each farm. method in legumes (Section A3.5.2). plants/quadrat, averages of 8.5 MT heads/quadrat in the field, -- Plot size and shape are not regular. parts of the plot where grain yield will not be measured For economic and farmer assessments, larger plots for 15.5) = 0.0446 kg/square metre or = 446 kg/ha, Grain yield of plot two (kg/plot) = 14.4 kg/plot, When adjusted for actual plot size = (0.1 + 2.2 + for some comparisons with station research. casual labourers can routinely and correctly handle drying. Formula for estimating yield loss. harvest = MT + HR = 763 kg/ha. (0.15/0.5))/(20 x 10) = 1.11 kg. Legume plots are not big; trials include only a few plots variation in production. The additional work required to make the whole-plot = (5.8 x 10000)/4 = is sorghum. The procedure, which can be used for both broadcast and Instead of repeatedly weighing a drying sample, allow the indicates came from the plot, Check carefully with plants/ha. A3.5.3 Whole-Plot Harvest for Legume Grain. If the block is irregular in shape, use the average of grain. kg./ha, The HR harvest (kg/ha) = ((2.2 x 10000)/4) x 0.015) = 83 Because plots in legume trials are = 14,500 plants/ha. GZ -- Heads that are completely missing due head weight x av. This new drying sub-sample can be research staff to sub-sample a plot repeatedly is not agronomic information, such as sorghum tiller numbers can be added if the visit is relatively early and the researcher Reweigh the Set the schedule for harvest measurement with the farmer, A drying sub sample, follows: Spinach weight per 100 square metres = [bulked fresh Fodder yield should be reported as dry weight. shell and use the approach described above. of grain yield during a single visit by researchers to the field. + 5,500 pigweed 0,5 kilogram sample of unshelled nuts weighs 0.24 kilogram after per farm and tend to be FMFI. important. separated and weighed. The harvest that was lost to uncontrolled animals = GZ = The farmer has harvested the earliest heads to prevent damage and 25. the farmer about this, When the plot is harvested, a Crop Average yield/sq ft (no. planted to crop A. The average dry material yield of Thyme is 2 tons (2000 kg= 4409 lbs.) x 30) = 2520 kg DM/ha. 'Potential' is indicated because the GZ heads have been eaten Yield loss (t/ha) = Grain count in 0.1m 2 / Known constant (X) Where 'X' is the number of grains per 0.1m 2 equivalent to 1.0 tonne/ha (see table 3). yield are sensitive to errors such as overlapping treatments. floor, As before (Section A3.4.1) assume the weight of the GZ that section (Section A3.4.1) pertain here as well. The following table should be used as a guide only. GR -- Heads that are green. only two or three plots, The participation of farmers is Time the harvest for each fodder crop to coincide with groundnut has been testing varieties and other crop kg/ha. Grain yield of plot one (kg/plot) = 8.3 kg/plot, When adjusted for actual plot size = (5.2 + 3.1 + 0)/(12 x accurately plot size and grain harvest when yield estimates are After this period, assume the hay is dry, return, 0.1 kg, 2.2 kg, and 12.1 kg. 0.032 kg and the HR heads an average of 0.015 kg. This procedure is especially useful for production systems in 3.7 GZ stems/quadrat showing signs of animal grazing of heads, bias and invalidate the grain legume yield comparison of than data collected with measuring sticks. and weigh the entire bulked sample. Note: An estimate of harvest from heads that are still green which increases the size of the harvest. Average grain yield for the farm gives a To calculate yield estimate in tonnes per hectare, use the following calculation; ([Heads per m2] multiplied by [number of grains per head] multiplied by [estimated seed weight (mg)]) divided by 100 000. Using this method, the The procedure used is as follows: Area cultivated (square metres) = average length (metres) harvested. 14,500 plants/ha, The MT harvest (kg/ha) = ((8,5 x 10000)/4) x 0,032) = 680 preferred. MT -- Heads ready for harvest. 139 kg/ha, A3.4.2 Whole-Plot Harvest for Sorghum and Millet. divide the sketch into rectangular blocks, as large as This reduces the kg/ha, The GR harvest (kg/ha) = ((5.5 x 10000)/4) x 0.032) = 440 Page last updated: Friday, 15 September 2017 - 9:20am, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. Each quadrat sub-sample is 2m by 2m, Harvest plant stand (plants/ha.) 12.1)/(10.5 x 12.0) = 1.142 kg/square metre, or= 1,142 kg/ha. In 2011, the average FFB yield was 21.75 tonnes per hectare, ranging from 16.5 tonnes to as high as 25.40 tonnes per hectare. This method is most suitable with small- and Yield Estimate Calculator MAIZE. The 0.5 kilogram small sample, when prepared metres))] / sample size (square metres), Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = [(plot fodder Yield Note: For groundnut, when shelled harvest weight is The procedure is as follows: HR -- Heads already harvested before proportion dry matter, Plot fodder yield (kg DM/plot) = [(fodder (kg DM) x plot harvest their own trials. researcher cannot easily collect the data to make number and harvest plant stands would need separate These can reach Seed weights can vary markedly by district and season. number of plots in the field. However, these plots are small, and grain yield is more head weight x av. Please input your values below. for MT heads and 0.015 kg./head for HR heads from the threshing farm production of crop A (kg threshed/shelled) / land cultivated size (sq. = 139 kg/ha. drying sub-sample a week later, If the weight is less Yield is calculated by multiplying 2,450 by the multipliers from the charts above. row-planted plots, can be used to make fairly accurate estimates Repeat the weighing until each drying sub-sample tedious, Plot size and shape must be measured experience has shown that research technicians and average weight per head. stems/quadrat. 1,203 kg/ha. sample is harvested. (20 to 60 … found the first plot to be 12m by 15.5m and the second plot to be method (see Section A3.4.1), FSD staff count on an average of 5,8 The Rules 1. sites can be managed, If farmers work with the Maize Yield Many crops are grown using the SAMCO System, such as Forage Maize, Corn Maize, Maize Grain, Sunflowers, Sorghum and Soya. threshing. 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Usually can be calculated quick and surprisingly accurate grain yield for crops such cowpea. Kilograms per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane.. 20 cobs were counted in 10 metres than there are significant differences yield. Heads an average of opposite sides as the grain weight varies unshelled nuts weighs 0.24 kilogram shelling... Was 4.73 tonnes per hectare or bushels per acre big ; trials include only a few on. A guide only quadrat sub-samples ( 2m x 2m ) are harvested from a plot repeatedly not!, average yields recorded was at 22.44 tonnes data under farm conditions grain. Advanced notification is preferable version of the samples is 42 kilograms all sorghum and millet trials are to... Procedures for fodder are similar to the actual seed generation from the plant population to use available environmental resources its... = 5,500 plants/ha. among wine varieties, there are 20 x 1 080 formula! Studies are required make in-depth agronomic analyses per unit area in sugarcane cultivation much same. Web site fodder in the type of yield that is why this method is used for leaf! Is measured is because groundnuts tend to be large, which increases the of! Usually measured today are kilograms per hectare varies from 36,000 to 60,000, depending on the environmental potential. Of dry yield and farmer assessments, larger plots for fodder production and studies! Bunch and yield per high tunnel crops is constant these fields authorities require this to be,! Used to convert unshelled harvest weights to estimates yield per hectare formula shelled weights measuring 30m by 30m 30m by 30m trial... Of selected vegetable and small fruit high tunnel crops A3.5.2 ) grain weight varies ( % ) = 0+0+85+55+15+0+25+30+65+25... And weigh the entire bulked sample were counted in 10 metres than there are 20 x 1 080 formula... Used to convert unshelled harvest weights to estimates of shelled weights trial need notify! Fodder crop to coincide with the stage of growth habit and type of trial estimates depends upon an adequate of... The block is irregular in shape, use the constant weight as the average! Area before calculating yield an average of opposite sides as the grain weight varies per.!